The Early History of Data Networks

Gerard J Holzmann Björn Pehrson


The original experimental hypertext version of subsections of this valuable web text are to be found starting at The Early History of Data Networks.  Here, for convenience and ease of reading, we have edit several of the subsections into continuous pdf files.  Alas, our collection of files is still incomplete and contain numerous typographical errors, but we will keep working on it.
 

Table of Contents



Preface

Chapter One

Torches and Beacons

How It Began
  • PIGEONS
Mirrors and Flags
  • HELIOGRAPHS
  • FLAGS
  • WIG-WAG
Fire Beacons
Watchmen and Stentors
The First Telegraphs
The 2000-Year Gap
      • TELESCOPES
The Art of Conveying Intelligence
  • NEW LENS DESIGNS
The Non-Inventions
Summary
Bibliographic Notes

Chapter Two

Claude Chappe

Of Barons and Kings
  • A FAMOUS UNCLE
The First Experiments
  • THE SYNCHRONIZED SYSTEM
  • THE POLITICS OF INVENTION
  • THE PANEL TELEGRAPH
  • THE SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH
  • THE CRITICAL TEST
Success
  • MONGE'S DESIGN

Beginnings of a Network
Despair
The Network Expands
  • FRAUD
  • NETWORK NODES
How the Telegraph Worked
  • THE FIRST CODE
  • THE REVISED CODE
  • FORMING A SIGNAL
  • TRANSMISSION SPEED
The Competition
The End
Bibliographic Notes

Chapter Three

Abraham N. Edelcrantz

A Man Named Clewberg
  • THE THEATER

Difficult Times
The First Experiments
The Shutter Telegraph
  • THE FIRST NETWORK LINK

An Inter-Networking Experiment
The Diplomat
  • LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT
  • STEAM ENGINES

The Swedish Telegraph Network
More Titles
Edelcrantz's Death
Reconstruction
The Switch To Electrical Telegraph
Bibliographic Notes

Chapter Four

A Treatise on Telegraphs

NOTES ON THE TRANSLATION
  • About Signals in General
  • History of the Telegraph from Ancient Times
  • Qualities Needed by this Machine
  • The French Invention
  • The French Invention II
  • The First Swedish Telegraph
  • The Second Telegraph, the Actual Object of this Study
  • The Principle of Locking the Signals
  • Mechanical Design of the Signals
  • Meaning of Signals and Use of the Code Table
  • Ways of Changing the Codes
  • Ways of Changing the Codes II
  • Ways of Changing the Codes III
  • Ways of Changing the Codes IV
  • Speech and Attention Signals
  • The Way to Transmit Signals
  • Table for Transcribing Signals
  • Adjustment of the Shutters in Several Ways for Machines of Various Sizes
  • Adjustment of the Shutters II
  • Adjustment of the Shutters III
  • Adjustment of the Shutters IV
  • Adjustment of the Shutters V
  • The Design of the Telegraph, Size and Color of the Shutters
  • The Design of the Telegraph II
  • The Design of the Telegraph III
  • The Design of the Telegraph IV
  • The Design of the Telegraph V
  • The Design of the Telegraph VI
  • Telescopes
  • Clocks
  • Operation
  • Distance between Stations
  • Observatory
  • The Speed of the Telegraph
  • Obstacles to Telegraphy
  • Use of the Telegraph at Night with Lights
  • The Use of Lights in the Daytime
  • General Advantages of the Telegraph
  • General Advantages of the Telegraph II
  • Contributions to Science of the Telegraph
  • Use of the Telegraph by People of Different Nations for Communication and Understanding
  • History of the Swedish Telegraph
  • Description of the Telegraph Installed in London
  • Description of the Telegraph in London II
  • Conclusion

Chapter Five

Other Countries

  • Norway, Denmark, and Finland
  • Germany
  • England and Ireland
  • The Netherlands and Curacao
  • Spain
  • Australia
  • America
  • Needles and Wires
  • Bibliographic Notes

Chapter Six

About Invention

Four Fundamental Steps
Inventing Control Signals
Protocol Procedure Rules
  • INITIALIZATION
  • ERROR CONTROL
  • RATE CONTROL
  • FLOW CONTROL
  • THE REVISION OF 1808

Hard Problems--Simple Solutions

Appendix A

Letters to Gentleman's Magazine

  • First Letter (September 1794, p. 815)
  • Editorial Response
  • Second Letter (November 1794, p. 992)
  • Third Letter (December 1794, p. 1072)

Appendix B

Chappe's Design

Regulations for Telegraphic Correspondence (1795)
Operating Instructions (1809)
  • DEVELOPING SIGNALS
  • CHANGING SIGNALS AND CORRECTING ERRORS
  • SUSPENSIONS
  • TERMINATING SUSPENSIONS
  • CONFLICTING ACTIVITY SIGNALS
  • WAIT SIGNALS
  • ADJOURN SIGNALS
  • CLOSING SIGNALS

General Station Regulations (1809)

Appendix C

Edelcrantz's Design

General Station Instructions (1808)
Addendum to the Station Instructions (1809)
Penal Code (1809)
Instructions for Telegraph Operators (1837)

Notes

  • Preface
  • Chapter One, Torches and Beacons
  • Chapter Two, Claude Chappe
  • Chapter Three, Abraham N. Edelcrantz
  • Chapter Four, A Treatise on Telegraphs
  • Chapter Five, Other Countries
  • Chapter Six, About Invention
  • Appendix B, Chappe's Design
  • Appendix C, Edelcrantz's Design

Bibliography