AM 106 & 206:
Applied Algebra

Fall 2016


Summary | Topics | Prerequisites | Grading | Problem Sets & Collaboration Policy | Sections | Readings | Related Courses

Lecturer: Prof. Madhu Sudan
Teaching Fellow:  Jaroslaw Blasiok
Course website:
Staff e-mail:
Time & place: MW 2:30-4, Maxwell-Dworkin G115


Algebra is the study of operations (such as addition, multiplication, composition) on sets of objects (such as numbers, polynomials, matrices, permutations). In addition to studying specific operations on specific sets, we also abstract properties that such operations commonly satisfy and the implications of these properties, thereby unifying the study of a wide variety of mathematical objects. In addition to being a beautiful subfield of mathematics, algebra has numerous applications in science and engineering. It is extremely useful for studying symmetries of physical objects, and for encoding data and computations to provide properties such as error-correction and privacy.

In this course, we will cover:

Tentative Topics

  1. Introduction (1 lecture)
  2. The Integers (2 lectures)
    • General Theory (Gallian Ch. 0): induction, gcds, prime factorization, modular arithmetic
    • Algorithmic Aspects: O notation, complexity of arithmetic, factorization, Euclidean algorithm
  3. Group Theory (9 lectures)
    • General Theory (Gallian Chs. 1-11): groups, subgroups, cyclic groups, permutation groups, isomorphism, cosets, products, quotients, homomorphisms, classification of finite abelian groups.
    • Algorithmic Aspects: presentations of groups, undecidability of general group membership, algorithms for permutation groups, complexity of discrete logarithms
    • Applications: symmetry groups, public-key cryptography, equivalence of log-depth circuits and constant-width branching programs, secure function evaluation, solving Rubik's cube, expander graphs.
  4. Rings and Fields (9 lectures)
    • General Theory (Gallian Chs. 12-22): rings, integral domains, ideals and quotients, ring homomorphisms, polynomial rings, vector spaces, extension fields, algebraic extensions, finite fields.
    • Algorithmic aspects: polynomial arithmetic, polynomial factorization, polynomial identity testing, irreducibility testing, finite field arithmetic.
    • Applications: error-correcting codes, secret sharing, secure multiparty computation, k-wise independent probability spaces, fast integer multiplication
  5. Conclusion (1 lecture)

The above list is overly ambitious for the time we have. We will certainly not be able to cover all of the algorithmic aspects and applications mentioned, but AM 206 students will have the opportunity to explore some of these as part of their "extra assignments".


The formal prerequisite for the course is (Applied) Math 21ab or equivalent, but general "mathematical maturity" is more important than the specific material in these courses.  At times, we will assume familiarity with basic linear algebra as covered in Math 21b, but students who have instead taken a prior proof-based course on a different topic (such as AM 107, Math 101, CS 121, or CS 124) should also be adequately prepared.


AM 106 students:

AM 206 students:

Your class participation grade is based on participation in lecture, but can also be boosted by participation in section and/or coming to office hours or section with questions or comments that show genuine interest in the material (i.e. is not just aimed to help you answer questions on the problem set or exam).  Do not be afraid of asking "stupid" questions!

AM206 problem sets will have some more advanced problems substituted in.. 

Problem Sets & Collaboration Policy

The course will have weekly problem sets, due by 11:59PM sharp electronically via Canvas. You are allowed 6 late days for the semester, of which at most 2 can be used on any individual problem set. (1 late day = 24 hours exactly). For any exceptions to these rules, I require a note from your senior tutor.

Students are encouraged to discuss the course material and the homework problems with each other in small groups (2-3 people).   Discussion of homework problems may include brainstorming and verbally walking through possible solutions, but should not include one person telling the others how to solve the problem.  In addition, each person must write up their solutions independently, and these write-ups should not be checked against each other or passed around.

While working on your problem sets, you may not refer to existing solutions, whether from other students, past offerings of this course, materials available on the internet, or elsewhere.  All sources of ideas, including the names of any collaborators, must be listed on your homework paper.


There will be weekly sections, which will be used to clarify difficult points from lecture, review background material, go over previous homework solutions, and sometimes provide interesting supplementary material.


The handouts for the course will be made available at the course website. These will be required reading. The recommended text is:

Joseph A. Gallian. Contemporary Abstract Algebra, 9th edition.  

It has been ordered at the Coop, and placed on reserve in the libraries. This book will include most of the topics covered in the course, and a lot more too, but it will not cover all the topics in the course. In particular it does not cover some of the applications and the algorithmic discussions. So it is important that you also attend lecture.

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